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A “tort” may generally be defined as an act deemed wrongful enough that one who suffers injury from it may bring a lawsuit to recover damages. Many torts have their origin in “common law,” which is the body of legal, historical principles and results from actual court cases, often historically developed in England and adopted by U.S. states. Invasion of Privacy Alth…
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Relatively recently, courts have begun awarding damages in certain cases for “loss of enjoyment of life,” also called “hedonic damages,” named for the ancient Greek school of philosophy called “Hedonists” who believed that life should focus on the pursuit of pleasure. The concept of a person being compensated for “loss of enjoyment of life” re…
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Authorities suggest that “lay” witnesses may testify to conclusions drawn from their own observations, while an “expert” expresses an opinion based on special knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education. The testimony of a civil engineer in a 1782 English case may be the first recorded use of expert testimony. In many lawsuits, the testimony of an “exp…
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An increasing array of goods and services are offered through “franchises.” Franchising is not a new concept, but it has exploded in popularity; according to statistics compiled by Price Waterhouse Coopers in 2005 (the latest year for which data was available), franchising is a business model used in over 70 industries in the United States which generates over $2.3 trillion in U…
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The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that awards of back wages to employees are subject to federal taxation according to the year in which the wages are actually paid, not the year in which the wages should have been paid or were actually earned. This holding appears to reconcile what had previously been an area of unsettled controversy between taxpayers and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS);…
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